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Chile: Using Music to Aid People Affected by the Chilean
Earthquake of February 27, 2010: The Curepto Project
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Music for Working with Trauma Survivors


SECTION:
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
clefCOUNTRY:
Sierra Leone
PROJECT:
COMMUNITY REINTEGRATION OF GIRLS ASSOCIATED WITH THE FIGHTING FORCES IN SIERRA LEONE: ASSESSING PSYCHOSOCIAL NEEDS THROUGH SONG – A PILOT STUDY

DESCRIPTION:
This pilot study was conducted in Kambia District of Sierra Leone in October 2003. Music was used to help assess community health and well-being, specifically psychosocial health of girls attempting to reintegrate into their communities following their association with the rebel fighting forces.  

Research by McKay & Gonsalves (2004) highlighted the vulnerability of girls returning from the fighting forces with babies born from rape or rebel or owner-“husbands.” Girl mothers, in a society suffering from collective societal trauma, were identified as among the most marginalized, neglected and underserved of all the girls returning to communities. The violation of community norms and inability to care for their children economically led to further despair and hardship, including an increase in health risks. 

In some instances attempts to access information regarding the psychosocial needs of the girls through traditional verbal interviews failed. Research shows how local music, particularly song (both improvised and previously known), can assist in the psychosocial reintegration of girl mothers and their children to their community. The use of the music did promote community development as the girls were able to experience connectivity as a result of singing together.  Additionally, women elders, who communicated with the researchers almost exclusively in song, were able to share, through song, cultural norms, associations, and possibilities with regard to their involvement and investment in the long-term psychosocial health of the girls in their communities.  

CURRENT STATUS:
A one time pilot study, seeking funds for further implementation.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
Schimpf, M.G. (2009).  Community reintegration of girls-associated-with-the-fighting forces in Sierra
Leone: Assessing psychosocial needs through their song.  In K. Stewart (Ed.), Music therapy and trauma:
Bridging theory and clinical practice (in press).  New York: Satchnote Press.

Schimpf, M.G. (2009).  Women Elders of Sierra Leone: The restoration of connection through song.  In
K. Stewart (Ed.), Music therapy and trauma: Bridging theory and clinical practice (in press).  New York:
Satchnote Press.

Gonsalves, M. (2007).  Music therapy and sexual violence: Restoring connection and finding personal
capacities for healing.  In S. Brooke (Ed.), The use of creative therapies with sexual abuse survivors. 
Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd.

McKay, S., Burman, M., Gonsalves, M., & Worthen, M. (2004, May/June).  Known but Invisible: Girl
Mothers Returning from Fighting Forces.  Child Soldiers Newsletter, Issue 6, Gonsalves, M. (2002). 
Human security and girls in fighting forces.  Unpublished manuscript, University of Wyoming, Laramie.

 

CONTACT INFORMATION:
Maria Gonsalves Schimpf, Music Therapist
722 E. Baseline Rd. Lafayette, CO 80026
Phone:  (646) 263-1495
Email: mcg257@nyu.edu


SECTION:
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
clefCOUNTRY:
Chile
PROJECT:
USING MUSIC TO AID PEOPLE AFFECTED BY THE CHILEAN EARTHQUAKE OF FEBRUARY 27, 2010: THE CUREPTO PROJECT

DESCRIPTION:
The Curepto Project is a music therapy initiative that came about after an earthquake on February 27, 2010 that registered an 8.8 magnitude on the Richter scale, followed by a tsunami which devastated a large area of southern Chile. The town of Curepto is located 400 km southeast of Santiago with 4,000 inhabitants, mainly and agriculture low income community with a strong tradition of adobe architecture.  About 80% of the homes were completely destroyed and four people were killed. Many of the residents were traumatized by the event and their way of life has changed dramatically. Their homes have been replaced by small wooden houses with no utilities. Emotional support has not reached the community at large causing a consequent increase in depression and alcoholism.

The objectives of this music therapy project include providing:

Facing a crisis situation of this magnitude creates acute stress and without proper intervention could lead to Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome. It is important for earthquake victims to acknowledge and to identify emotional reactions to the crisis and to develop mechanisms for self-care in order to be able to help their families and others in their community. This project provides group music therapy using creative music-making techniques to open channels of communication for self-exploration in order to clarify ideas and to come in contact with emotions. The project provides about 50 musical instruments, easy to use and providing a diversity of sounds, including typical instruments of the area. The activities have included free improvisation with the instruments, singing popular songs and composing over familiar melodies and movement (breathing and relaxation techniques).

As many of the buildings are badly damaged or unsafe to use, there is need for flexibility as to where the sessions take place. Music therapy sessions have been carried out in public school classrooms, community centers for senior citizens, the meeting area of the town municipal building, the lobby of the first aid walk in rural clinic, the hospital of Curepto, the community center of the popular housing area, the fire station and a day care center. Group interventions have been offered according to the needs of the clients. There has been continuous communication with local professionals (health, education, social work) who help identify the groups to be served.

CURRENT STATUS:
Three sessions were offered to most groups over a period of several months. The Curepto Project takes place in three phases based on the belief that by offering a creative outlet through music clients will be able to:

Music therapy group interventions were carried out from March to December 2010, approximately every 3 to 4 weeks. Over 400 people were served and over 30 group sessions delivered. The project is waiting for funds to be able to continue. At this time music therapists continue to be in contact with the health workers as well as with the senior´s home by phone and email correspondence to continue evaluating the current needs.

RESEARCH AND EVALUATION:
It was planned that each group would have three sessions although this varied based on the needs and priorities of the population which changed rapidly, especially for front line workers. Most of the other groups, seniors, youth and women, received the full three sessions. A verbal evaluation was done at the end of each session asking the clients “How was the experience for you?” and “What do you take with you?” All clients were also given a written questionnaire at the end of the last session, to be completed anonymously, without the music therapists present. The information has been documented for each group and the program as a whole. General comments have also been included. Preliminary results were presented at the World Congress for music Therapy in Seoul, Korea July 2011. This information can be obtained from: en.musika@gmail.com

CONTACT INFORMATION:
Contact Person: Mireya González BFA. MT; Alejandra Salazar BME, MT
Address: Parcela 20 #221, Peñalolen Alto, Santiago, Chile
Phone: (562) 2782822
Email: en.musika@gmail.com


SECTION:
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
clefCOUNTRY:
United States of America
PROJECT: 
MUSIC THERAPY AS CRISIS PROJECT INTERVENTION WITH SURVIVORS OF THE ATTACKS ON THE WORLD TRADE CENTERS IN NEW YORK CITY, SEPTEMBER 11, 2001

DESCRIPTION:
In response to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City on September 11, 2001, the “New York City Music Therapy Relief Project” was created in which 33 professional music therapists provided direct client services in 20 locations throughout NYC, together facilitating over 7,000 music therapy interventions for children, adults, and families of the victims. The goal was to help those struggling with the aftermath of the attacks to reduce stress and cope with trauma through the focused use of music and music therapy interventions.

This project was developed by the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) with underwriting support from the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences (NARAS).

Additionally, a nine-week program was created to help caregivers, relief workers, medical professionals, therapists and police officers to process the aftermath of the crisis and nurture themselves. Music interventions included musical improvisation, song-writing and singing, combined with sharing stories, discussions, listening, relaxation, drawing, imagery, and bodywork. Participating music therapists published a book describing the process, theory and methods of the program, Caring for the caregiver: The use of music and music therapy in grief and trauma.

CURRENT STATUS:
Additional support from the Toys R Us Foundation allowed the program to continue for another year, and the work of the relief project continues in the many music therapy practices by licensed clinicians in New York today.

In response to the need in the United States, the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) has further developed a Disaster Response Program. AMTA Disaster Response Programs have also included: Gulf Coast hurricanes (2005, 2008), Virginia Technology University shooting (2007), and Southern California wildfires (2007, 2008).
           
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
Loewy, J. & Frisch-Hara, A. (2007, 2002). Caring for the caregiver: The use of music and music therapy in grief and trauma. Silver Spring, MD: American Music Therapy Association.
Aasgaard, T. (2009). Music and music therapy in grief and trauma [Review of the book Caring for the Caregiver: The use of music and music therapy in grief and trauma]. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy. Retrieved online: http://www.njmt.no/bookreview_2009102.php
American Music Therapy Association (2005). AMTA and Hurricane Relief Efforts. Retrieved online: http://www.musictherapy.org/events/relief.html

CONTACT INFORMATION:         
Organization: American Music Therapy Association
Address: 8455 Colesville Rd., Ste. 1000, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910
Phone: 301.589.3300; Fax: 301.589.5175
Email: www.musictherapy.org


SECTION:
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
clefCOUNTRY:
China
PROJECT:
HELPING TRAUMA SURVIVORS OF THE SICHUAN EARTHQUAKE: THE HANWANG FLUTE EDUCATION PROJECT 

DESCRIPTION:
On the first anniversary of the Sichuan earthquake in 2009, an elementary school in Hanwang requested support from The Horizon Education Center to help its children cope with the after-effects of this traumatic event. After considering different therapy approaches, this agency decided to develop a group flute playing project to promote coping skills and cooperative social behavior. An experienced flute educator headed this effort and within a short period of time students and their teachers learned how to play together in a musically harmonious and coordinated fashion.

Reports from the project indicate that students who had previously experienced posttraumatic symptoms such as disorientation, hallucinations, extreme anxiety and hyper-vigilance were said to be more calm, self-assured, socially interactive and appropriately self-regulating in terms of their emotional and cognitive functioning.

CURRENT STATUS:
The Horizon Education Center has submitted a proposal to the Chinese government to fund similar projects in other schools affected by the aftermath of the earthquake. Approval is currently pending.     

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
www.recorderchina.com/article.php?id=7

CONTACT INFORMATION:
Organization: Horizon Education Center of China
Address: Tower 2, Room 302, Lihengmingyuan, 23 Nanbinhe Road, Xuanwu District,
Beijing, 100055, China
Phone: 86-10-6348-0852; Fax:  86-10-6348-2280
Contact Person: Liu, Shujun
E-mail: yangfanhd@yahoo.com.cn


SECTION:
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
clefCOUNTRY:
China
PROJECT:
MUSIC THERAPY AS CRISIS INTERVENTION WITH SURVIVORS OF THE SICHUAN EARTHQUAKE ON MAY 12, 2008

DESCRIPTION:
In 2008, an 8.0 magnitude earthquake occurred in the Sichuan province of China. This was the most serious earthquake in more than one thousand years in China, resulting in 90,000 deaths and 370,000 injured.
 
Within two weeks of the Sichuan earthquake disaster, 60 music therapy professors and students arrived in the regions of the disastrous earthquake. They worked in shelters and schools with large groups, small treatment groups and individuals sessions. Familiar songs, dances, music games and song discussion were some of the activities utilized.

Through the program, survivors began to participate more actively, gently being drawn out from a state of grieving. The music and the activities generated a positive energy at the disaster site and lifted the spirits of both caregivers and survivors which aided in the recovery process.

CURRENT STATUS:
The earthquake relief project is ongoing. Activities include:

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
http://www.musictherapy2003.com/text.php?id=220              http://www.wfmt.info/WFMT/GCI_Column_files/GCI%20Column%201_2009.pdf
http://en.ccom.edu.cn/academics/iomt/introduction/200803240044.shtml
http://www.china.org.cn/china/features/content_16654093_2.htm

Publications:
Tian Gao. (unpublished document). Music Therapy and Crisis Intervention with Survivors of the Earthquake in China on May 12, 2008

Jennifer Hsiao-Ying Tiao Shih:
http://mmd.sagepub.com/content/3/2/84.abstract

WFMT: http://www.wfmt.info/WFMT/GCI_Column_2,_2011_files/Keynote%20Section%20GCI_%20Dr%20%20Petra%20Kern_Chengdu%202009.pdf

CONTACT INFORMATION:           
Organization : Central Conservatory of Music, Music Therapy Research Center
Contact Peron: Professor Tian Gao
Email::tiangao@263.net


clefSECTIONS:
Music for Sustainable Community Development
Music for Mental and Physical Health
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
COUNTRY:
India
PROJECT:
THE COMMUNITY MUSIC THERAPY PROGRAM: THE MUSIC THERAPY TRUST

 Please Refer to SECTION II, PAGE 110


SECTIONS:
Music for Sustainable Community Development
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
clefCOUNTRY:
Japan
PROJECT:
BIG BAND FOR PEOPLE WITH AND WITHOUT DISABILITIES: COMMUON

 Please Refer to SECTION I, PAGE 53



SECTION:
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
clefCOUNTRY:
Germany
PROJECT:
USING MUSIC THERAPY TO REDUCE POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER SYMPTOMS AMONG CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS IN THE TREATMENT OF TORTURE VICTIMS

DESCRIPTION:
The Berlin Center for the Treatment of Torture Victims (bzfo), founded in 1992, is a nonprofit association committed to the rehabilitation of torture victims. The bzfo treats children, adolescents, adults and their families from more than 50 countries, as well as victims of the former East German secret service. The multidisciplinary team at the bzfo consists of medical doctors, psychologists, psychotherapists, creative therapists and social workers. Their work is assisted by specially trained interpreters.

The music therapy service was initially set up in 2001 by the Nordoff-Robbins Foundation, Germany, and the Institute for Music Therapy at the University Witten-Herdecke.

Individual and group music therapy sessions include activities such as improvisational and active music making, as well as receptive music listening, musical storytelling, song writing, musical movement and dancing, and musical drawing. Music therapy techniques address symptoms of anxiety and depression, social isolation, the ability to access and to regulate emotions, self-awareness, integration of traumatic experiences and strenghtening of individual resources, strategies and competences.

At the bzfo, using music therapy in the treatment of torture survivors and people who suffer from war experiences has proven to be an efficient and supportive method in reducing stress reactions and symptoms resulting from trauma. Victims are helped to regain their dignity and lead a life largely free of the physical and psychological after-affects of the torture experience.

CURRENT STATUS:
The music therapy program is currently offered to day clinic patients as well as patients from the child and youth department. The foundation “Musik hilft” (Music Helps) promotes the work with children and adolescents through its sponsorship.
 
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
www.bzfo.de
www.musiktherapie.de

Publications:
Zharinova-Sanderson, Oksana (2002): Oksana works with traumatised refugees at a Centre in Berlin, Germany.  in: G. Ansell: Community Music Therapy & The Winds of Change“ Diskussionspapier. In: Voices [Online]“ A World Forum for Music Therapy 2 (2), 21 S.

Zharinova-Sanderson, Oksana (2002): Therapie in Musik: Entdeckungen, Probleme und Ideen aus der Musiktherapie mit Folterüberlebenden und traumatisierten Flüchtlingen. in: A. Birck, C. Pross & J. Lansen (Hrsg.): Das Unsagbare. Berlin: Springer. S. 107-122.

Zharinova-Sanderson, O. (2006): Promoting integration and socio-cultural change: community music therapy with traumatized refugees in Berlin. in: M. Pavlicevic & G. Ansdell (ed.): Community music therapy. London J. Kingsley Publ. S. 233-48.

Braak, Patricia (2007): Interkulturelle Musiktherapie. In: Musiktherapeutische Umschau, Band 27 (3), S. 249-254.

Braak, Patricia (2008): Musiktherapie mit traumatisierten Menschen. In: Wolff, Hanns-Günter (Hrsg.): Musiktherapie und Trauma. ISBN-10: 3895006084

CONTACT INFORMATION:
Organization: Berlin Center for the Treatment of Torture Victims (bzfo)
Address: Turmstr. 21, 10559 Berlin, Germany
Phone (+0049) (0) 30 30 39 06-0; Fax (+0049) (0) 30 30 61 43 71
Contact Person: Patricia Braak
Email: p.braak@bzfo.de


SECTION:
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
clefCOUNTRY:
United Kingdom
PROJECT:
MUSIC WITH EXCLUDED CHILDREN AND AT-RISK YOUNG PEOPLE: CREATIVE AND INCLUSIVE MUSIC MAKING AND SONGWRITING PROJECTS

DESCRIPTION:
CRISP is a local charity providing self-esteem and community building activities through music. This organization has operated since 1998 in the south of London. One of its projects is ‘Express Yourself,’ a series of programs aimed at children and young people who have been excluded from mainstream schooling due to their difficulties in managing their behaviors, or because of disability or pregnancy/motherhood. There are also strands for young people experiencing alienation due to loss of their family or to society’s (and sometimes their) difficulty with their emerging lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender sexuality.

Music is used to validate cultural preferences and differences. Group work games are used to build relationships, create safety and minimize competition. Regardless of music experience and technical skill, collaborative listening and writing techniques are used to build lyrics and music lines, often using technology as well as acoustic and electric instruments to facilitate full participation of all parties.  Participants also share current music choices through singing and performing. A CD of their work is produced and often there are performances for family and friends.

Due to short term funding, generally 1or 2 term projects run for 10-20 weeks. Through expressing themselves through creative music making, songwriting and beat based spoken word, young people learn to work together, find new avenues for self-esteem and begin to value their voices and choices in a broader sense.

CURRENT STATUS:
The organization has begun to grow and receive regular contracts as its work is recognized.  It also continues to apply for funding for longer term work. As this year is the UK Government’s, Year of Music, it is hoped this funding will come through. In 2006, CRISP was also the recipient of the International Society for Music Education’s Gibson Inaugural Award for community-based music education projects.  This allowed the program to run a similar series of programs in post-conflict Serbia.

CRISP also runs similar programs for adults, with the aim of reducing isolation and enhancing well-being and community cohesion. These are funded by churches and government bodies.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
www.sse.org.uk/person.php?personid=197
http://www.isme.org/en/isme-gibson-awards/index.php

Publications:
Woodward, S. and Pestano, C. (2010). “Marginalized communities: Reaching those falling outside socially accepted norms” in Veblen, K.K. & Elliott, D.J.  (Eds.). (2010). Community music today.  Landham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers (in press).

Pestano, C. & Lissimore, T. (2006). “Get Your Act Together: a short-term exploration of  informal learning in schools” in Coll, H. & Finney, J. (Eds.) (2007). Ways Into Music, Making Every Child's Music Matter, ISBN 978-0-9505789-7-2.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
Organization: CRISP
Address: Cornerstone House, 14 Willis Road, Croydon, CR0 2XX
Contact Person: Catherine Pestano, Director
Email: communitymusicservice@gmail.com


SECTION:
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
clefCOUNTRY:
United Kingdom – Northern Ireland
PROJECT:
WORKING WITH SEVERELY DISTURBED AND TRAUMATIZED YOUNG MEN:
A COMMUNITY PSYCHIATRIC PROJECT

DESCRIPTION:
The overall aim of the project is to bring a ‘musical listening’ space to a group of very disturbed young males who are at risk of self-harm, many of whom have attempted suicide. While not a formal therapy group, the space provided for group members is essentially therapeutic, and one within which they are listened to non-judgmentally - where difficult feelings can be brought up and thought about.

Sessions take place in the community within which they live. Group members live in an area of Belfast that has seen violent paramilitary activity. There is a complex post-conflict situation: peace may be agreed to politically, but in many people there is no inner peace. Ex-paramilitaries are still active in many communities. Families living in such circumstances experience difficulties in the areas of depression, self-medication (alcohol, prescription and street drugs), paranoia and psychosis. These issues can run through families across three generations.

The focus is on traumatic musical material presented during therapy sessions. Through detailed observation of their musical improvisations, it is possible to make links between what happens musically and what takes place in their inner and outer worlds. Music offers a unique connection that can allow traumatic narrative to exist within a potentially creative context

Music has a special place in speaking directly to traumatic material at the level it occurs. Observations and thoughts about the nature of the music made by these young men are central to the project and are also the focus of the research.           

CURRENT STATUS:
The grant for this project has now ended, as planned, after three years. The project exceeded the original expectations in terms of length of time and effectiveness. Perhaps most important of all, the group of participants grew in so many ways and in their last meetings they began to discuss how they could use their experiences to work in their community with young people who have experienced what they had gone through. This became a natural ending to the work. Since the project over the years has covered most of that community in one way and another, their influence from now on could be enormous. To be made 'redundant' in this way was perhaps the most wonderful outcome of the work.

The project leaders have used the experiences with these severely disturbed young men to inform their ongoing work and thinking in a number of ways: speaking to others who work with such patients, disseminating the information via professional meetings/conference, advising groups and policy deciders.
RESEARCH AND EVALUATION:
There was a research component to the project, which explored the specific role of music with those traumatized and also evaluates the work as it took place. A detailed protocol has been developed documenting the content of sessions that will be of use to others working in this area, and there is great hope for an international, multi-site research study. The project has also resulted in two conference papers and two publications that outline different aspects of the work.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
http://www.nordoff robbins.org.uk/musicTherapy/ourMusicTherapyServices/outreach/northernIreland.html
http://news.ulster.ac.uk/releases/2002/645.html

Publications:
1)  Sutton & MacDougall (2010). “The Roar on the other side of silence: Some thoughts about silence and the traumatic in music therapy”. In Stewart, K. (Ed.) Music therapy & trauma: Bridging theory and clinical practice, New York: Satchnote Press.  (Presented 2008 at 1st International Trauma & Music Therapy Symposium, Beth Israel Medical Centre, New York, USA, June 2008).

2) Sutton & De Backer (2009). “Music, Trauma and Silence: The State of the Art” In: Arts in Psychotherapy Journal Special Edition: Trauma Volume 36, Issue 2 pp 75-83.

3)  Sutton & MacDougall (in preparation) “Musical Thinking about Trauma: a post-conflict project with severely disturbed young men” For: Nordic Journal of Music Therapy.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
Organization: Centre for Psychotherapy, Belfast HSC Trust,
Address: Shimna House, Knockbracken Healthcare Park, Saintfield Road, Belfast BT8 8BH,
            Northern Ireland, UK
Phone (+0044) (0) 28 9056 5350
Contact Persons: Dr Julie Sutton (music psychotherapist), Dr Iain MacDougall (psychiatrist)
Email: swimminggoldfish@hotmail.com


clefSECTION:
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
COUNTRY:
Israel
PROJECT:
USING MUSIC TO HELP RELIEVE POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER SYMPTOMS AMONG SOLDIERS IN ISRAEL

DESCRIPTION:
Bar-Ilan University’s Department of Criminology and the Music Therapy Clinic and Research Center led a study of music therapy group work with six soldiers from the Military Unit for Combat Stress Reactions in the Israeli Defense Forces who were diagnosed as suffering from combat or terror related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Combat stress reaction is common among soldiers and can develop into PTSD which includes feelings of loneliness and isolation from society, intrusive memories, outbursts of anger and generalized feelings of helplessness. The group work was supervised by the head of the music therapy program at Bar Ilan University. 
                                                                                                      
Music therapy sessions included playing music, talking, and listening to relaxing music. Music playing focused on drumming together and the instruments used included Darbuka, Tabla, Indian Drum, Floor Drum and two Djembes, as well as other melodic, harmonic and wind instruments.

CURRENT STATUS:
Bar-Ilan University Music Therapy Clinic and Research Center’s projects include:

 
RESEARCH AND EVALUATION:
Data was collected from a digital camera which filmed the music therapy sessions, open-ended in-depth interviews, and the self-report of the therapist. Some reduction in PTSD symptoms was observed following drumming which especially increased the sense of openness, togetherness, belonging, sharing, closeness, connectedness and intimacy. The groups also promoted a non-intimidating access to traumatic memories, facilitating an outlet for rage and regaining a sense of self-control.
 
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

Publications:
Bar-Ilan University (2007). Music Therapy – Department of Music Academic Projects for the Community.
Retrieved online:
http://www1.biu.ac.il/indexE.php?id=1013&pt=1&pid=1012&level=4&cPath=44,1012,1013

Bensimon, M., Amir, D., & Wolf, Y. ( 2008 ). Drumming through trauma: Music therapy with post-
traumatic soldiers. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 35, 34-48.

Bensimon, M. (2009). The dynamic of songs in intergroup conflict and proximity: The case of the Israeli
Disengagement from the Gaza Strip. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 12, 397-412.

Gilboa, A., Yehuda, N., & Amir, D. (2009). Let’s talk music: A musical-communal project for enhancing
communication among students of multi-cultural origin. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 18(1), 3-31.

CONTACT INFORMATION:           
Organization: Bar-Ilan University
Address: Bar-Ilan University Ramat Gan, 52900 Israel
Phone: 972-3-531-8090
Contact Persons: Professor Dorit Amir, PhD Department of Music, Music Therapy, Director;
            Email: amir@mail.biu.ac.il
Moshe Bensimon, PhD, Department of Criminology and Music Therapy; Email: bensimm@mail.biu.ac.il


SECTIONS:
Music for Mental and Physical Health
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
clefCOUNTRY:
Jordan
PROJECT:
MUSIC THERAPY WITH THE IRAQI REFUGEE POPULATION

 Please Refer to SECTION II, PAGE 128

 


SECTIONS:
Music for Sustainable Community Development
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
clefCOUNTRY:
Lebanon
PROJECT:
MUSIC AND THE ARTS WITH CHILDREN AFFECTED BY POLITICAL CONFLICT: THE FIREMAKER LEBANON PROJECT

DESCRIPTION:
The FireMaker Lebanon Project trains professionals, mostly clinical psychologists, in using creative tools such as music, art, and drama in their psychosocial work with children affected by political conflict. Within the distinctive social fabric of Lebanon, the project trains care-workers to provide more effective services to children of vulnerable communities in a country that has experienced extensive social instability.

Over the span of four days, this arts-and-health workshop in music, art and drama, enabled sixteen imaginative and vibrant young professionals to learn skills for use in their daily working environments. A fundamental belief of the FireMaker Project workshop is that once participants are competent in using the creative arts tools, they will be better equipped to work with children:

CURRENT STATUS:
The Lebanon Workshop was first conducted in June, 2008 as an outreach of the Zakheni Arts Therapy Foundation, South Africa which conducts creative arts therapy training services for care givers internationally. A follow up study in 2009 showed that the use of music and other creative arts was integrated into the current services being provided and has been found to be very useful in connecting with children.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
www.zakheni.org
http://www.hopehiv.org/Publisher/Article.aspx?ID=126223
http://www.zakheni.org.za/the-firemaker-project.html

CONTACT INFORMATION:
Organization: Zakheni Arts Therapy Foundation
Contact Persons: Kristen Meyer & Lesley Bester, Directors;
            Online: http://www.zakheni.org.za/contact-us.html
Contact Person: Mercedes Pavicevic, Lebanon Workshop Director
Email: mercedes@nordoff-robbins.org.uk


 SECTION:
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
clefCOUNTRY:
Occupied Palestinian Territory
PROJECT:
THE USE OF MUSIC THERAPY WITH CHILDREN TRAUMATIZED BY ONGOING CONFLICT: BETHLEHEM PROJECT

DESCRIPTION:
The purpose of the Bethlehem project was to help children through music therapy to deal with the trauma caused by the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict in the city of Bethlehem in the West Bank of the Occupied Palestinian Territory. These children are living with a multi-traumatic situation given the armed separation wall, war stories passed on through the close collective culture and increasing unemployment. Researchers have found that children are responding to the situation with high anxiety, depression, short attention spans and Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome. Mothers of the children and social service providers working with children at a variety of different programs throughout the area were interviewed to assess their views of the impact of the conflict on the children and the community’s ability to help the children. Many shared their heart breaking stories about their experiences related to the years of conflict in Palestine.

A seven-component music therapy protocol was designed and implemented to develop the emotional coping skills of these traumatized children to enhance their resiliency. The music therapy experiences involved both improvisational and structured music experiences. Traditional and non-traditional musical instruments were used, each offering unique benefits to the children. Twenty children in the first through fifth grades were offered individual music therapy over a period of five weeks. All but two of these children were referred due to severe behavioral problems in school. In that the children first needed to develop emotional skills, the music therapy experiences were designed to increase their feeling word vocabularies and their ability to relate feeling words to personal experiences. Research results from a pre and post-test evaluation indicated significant changes in their use of feeling words.

Music therapy was also offered to two other groups of children, a small group of kindergarten children and a group of 8 to 11 children at an independent center. Dramatic changes were observed each week as the children began to attend and listen to each other and express feelings while playing instruments or talking.

CURRENT STATUS:
After the success of the music therapy project in Bethlehem, the music therapy training model is being evaluated and further developed to include the recent literature on neurobiological changes due to trauma. Research on the influence of trauma provides additional support for the use of music therapy as a body-oriented, nonverbal treatment approach.

Modules based on this information will be developed that will use music to develop the emotional coping skills of children in various countries who are dealing with a traumatic event or on-going conflict. These modules will involve improvisatory and structured music therapy experiences. Training modules are also being created to help people within these countries to implement the music experiences, thus making the project more sustainable. The Bethlehem project was funded by an interdisciplinary grant from Elizabethtown College. The on-going project is funded by private donations and grants.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
http://www.etown.edu/CETL.aspx?topic=Investigating+the+Emotional+coping+Skills+of+Palestinian+Chidren+to+Enhance+the+Community's+Capacity
Publications:
How Recent Research and Theory on Trauma Stress Relates to Music Therapy. Paper written for      
proceedings of the VIII EUROPEAN MUSIC THERAPY CONGRESS, Cádiz, Spain.(In            Press)

Use of Traditional and Nontraditional Instruments with Traumatized Children in Bethlehem, OPT, Music     
Therapy Perspectives. (In Press)

Understanding the emotional coping needs of Palestinian children through music therapy. In XII                    Congreso mudial de musicoterapia 2008 (pp. 77-80). Argentina: Libreria Akadia Editorial, 2008.
Understanding the Emotional Needs of Palestinian Children through Music Therapy, Presented at the National AMTA Conference, St. Louis, MS, November, 2008. (Sent on request:    behrenga@etown.edu)

CONTACT INFORMATION:
Address: Elizabethtown College, One Alpha Drive, Elizabethtown, PA 17022
Contact Person: Dr. Gene Ann Behrens, MT-BC, Director, Music Therapy Program
Phone: Home: 717-653-4985; Work: 717-361-1991; Fax: 717-361-1187
Email: behrenga@etown.edu


SECTIONS:
Music for Sustainable Community Development
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
Music for Peacebuilding
clefCOUNTRIES:
Multi-National: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Occupied Palestinian Territories, Rwanda, Uganda, UK
PROJECT:
USING MUSICTO CONNECT COMMUNITIES, BRIDGE DIVIDES ANDHEAL THE WOUNDS OF WAR: MUSICIANS WITHOUT BORDERS

 Please Refer to SECTION I, PAGE 66


SECTIONS:
Music for Sustainable Community Development
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
clefCOUNTRIES:
Multi-National: Indonesia, Iraq, United States of America
PROJECT:
RECAPTURING CULTURAL IDENTITY THROUGH DRUMMING AND DRUM MAKING: DRUMS OF HUMANITY

 Please Refer to SECTION I, PAGE 73


  SECTION:
Music for Working with Trauma Survivors
clefCOUNTRIES:
International
PROJECT:
GLOBAL CRISIS INTERVENTION: A COMMISSION OF THE WORLD FEDERATION OF MUSIC THERAPY

DESCRIPTION:
As a Commission of the World Federation of Music Therapy (WFMT), Global Crisis Intervention aims to enhance the well-being of individuals around the world by supporting and acknowledging the efforts of music therapy work in all areas of global crises. There are numerous social and environmental issues deeply affecting the quality of life internationally such as hunger, poverty, war, genocide, and natural disasters. The aim of this Commission is to recognize and support the many music therapists around the world committed to addressing these issues. This Commission also aims to develop strategic plans and specific educational resources for Music Therapists interested in serving individuals experiencing traumas and losses as a result of natural disasters. A Global Crisis Intervention Column now serves as an international forum for individuals to share reports of work in which they are involved.

The World Federation of Music Therapy (WFMT) is an international organization bringing together music therapy associations and individuals interested and active in developing and promoting music therapy globally through professional exchange, collaboration, and action. WFMT is an international body, with officers, commissioners, and regional liaisons in Africa, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Finland, India, Ireland, Korea, Spain, U.A.E., and the USA.

CURRENT STATUS:
The Commission’s ongoing goals include:

Between 2010-2011 this Commission was active in these ways:

RESEARCH AND EVALUATION:
The Commission has compiled an Introductory Training Manual that includes helpful strategies to consider when working in disasters as well as documents pertaining to lived experiences with advice from music therapists who have served post crises. This Manual will continue to be updated.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
http://www.wfmt.info/WFMT/Global_Crises_Intervention.html
http://www.wfmt.info/WFMT/Home.html
http://www.wfmt.info/WFMT/GCI_Column.html
http://www.wfmt.info/WFMT/GCI_Column_2,_2011_files/Keynote%20Section%20GCI_%20Dr%20%20Petra%20Kern_Chengdu%202009.pdf

CONTACT INFORMATION:
Organization: World Federation of Music Therapy (WFMT), Global Crises Intervention Commission
Contact Persons: Dr. Gene Ann Behrens, MT-BC, (Chair, 2011-2014); Email: crises@wfmt.info
            Dr. Byungchuel Choi, President WFMT; Email: president@wfmt.info





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